Calderdale in their Local Plan have decided that an Employment Zone will be built within the Neighbourhood Planning area. The idea behind an enterprise zones is simple: cut taxes and strip back planning rules in small areas to attract new businesses and create new jobs. The question for the forum, is this the best utilization of the land? The evidence in the development of successful Enterprise Zones in England shows that investment in regeneration and infrastructure is critical.
The preference in the village (93% of residents stated this in a survey) is that the Employment Zone should remain as greenbelt. Their second preference (7%) would be housing. However, the Neighbourhood Forum recognise that should the Enterprise Zone receive planning consent that it has a responsibility to assist in ensuring that the development takes place. To this end there is a requirement to develop policies and procedures for the successful development of this land.
Most of the employment provision within the Local Plan area is concentrated in Brighouse. The enterprise Zone represents 40% of industrial development in this plan. The forum takes the view to be successful this development must be focused on areas of high growth potential and should be tailored to the individual needs of Calderdale. If this is the case simpler planning and discounted business rates ought to drive growth. There are therefore some questions about the business use designated for this Enterprise Zone.
Cushman & Wakefield was appointed by West Yorkshire Combined Authority to undertake a property market appraisal to establish the industrial market demand position for Clifton Business Park.
The West Yorkshire industrial market is characterised generally by a falling supply and pent up occupier demand as a result of a general lack of development activity in recent years. The market has been driven by logistics with the continued growth in demand for distribution locations, with growth in demand for a range of unit sizes. Key recent lettings in the area relate to Amazon and John Lewis at the Leeds Enterprise Zone.
The market is dominated by the Motorway corridors of the M62 and M1, although the majority of occupier demand to some extent is to the east of Bradford, to the west the limited availability of serviced sites means it is untested. The key industrial locations within the Yorkshire region are the Leeds Enterprise Zone, Wakefield and Castleford/Normanton in what is known as the ‘golden triangle’, located within close proximity to the M62, A1 and M1. The conclusion reached by this report is that the economic viability of the proposed site is untested. Moreover, in their report they point out that within a three-mile radius 1.5 million square feet of warehousing remains vacant.
The forum therefore believes it is important that the economic viability of this site is a priority if it is to be successful. There are concerns that there hasn’t been sufficient time spent on establishing a real need for the development of this site and there isn’t adequate investment in the development of infrastructure to make the proposed Enterprise Zone viable.
The Forum has carried out using independent consultants a study of traffic, which has a direct bearing upon the need to allocate adequate investment to ensure that this development is successful. This study can be found in the appendix. The study updates data collected by WSP the Local Authorities Consultants.
The development of an Enterprise Zone represents a considerable investment for West Yorkshire and Calderdale. To be successful and to ensure that this site is not left with vacant buildings it is important that the strategy being pursued by the Yorkshire combined Authority maximises the market potential in the region. Professor Peter Tyler Cambridge University has investigated the factors that create a successful Enterprise Zone. The research undertaken as part of his national evaluation showed that the relative performance of a zone was also influenced by the approach adopted by the zones authority to select, assemble and develop the zone. The key factors he identifies as important here were:
A conclusion that can be drawn from this work is, Zones with low existing market opportunity and high need (i.e. high remediation cost, poor infrastructure etc.) were less likely to benefit and take more time to reap the benefits of zone support.
The Clifton Enterprise Zone is a relatively small site 25.5 Hectares. This will limit then the number of businesses that can be allocated to the site and restrict their opportunities for growth. The current proposal is flexible allowing up to 29 units to be built depending upon demand. The site will have a mixture of business types ranging from light engineering, offices space and warehousing.
The evidence shows that Enterprise Zones can create employment and the following provides data on what could be expected from the Clifton development. This data is based upon the Development of Enterprise Zones up to 2014. The average number of people employed per hectare (HA) was 37.2 but was higher in the high opportunity, low need zones at 43.3. It was lower in the relatively lower economic opportunity zones at 24.3 per HA. These estimates are based on the gross area of the zone and since some of the total land available is used for landscaping, access and supporting infrastructure the estimates per HA are around 20% higher if this element is removed. Thus, an average zone generated around 45 jobs per HA.
This would suggest using the average that the Clifton Enterprise Zone will create 1150 jobs. If this was the case, then how traffic is managed and the potential issues around noise and air pollution have to be factored into the development. A concern is that jobs are not displaced but created for the people of Calderdale. The focus should be to minimise the degree to which zones simply displace local economic activity at the local level (‘boundary-hopping’). Moving offices from the Armytage Estate across the road, which do not create new roles is counterproductive.
Professor Tyler maintains; It is important in the early life of a zone to ensure that some sites have been designated that do not suffer from extensive dereliction and thus need substantial up-front expenditure on land reclamation and infrastructure before any development can start. Development should be encouraged in the most accessible sites closer to economic opportunity first. Once some early momentum has been achieved on relatively non-constrained site it will then be possible to realise the potential of other more encumbered sites.
This would suggest that the development of the Enterprise Zone in Clifton would need to be made where it is easily accessible from the roads. There are two possible access points, one from Coal Pit Lane and the other Clifton Common.
These access points present some issues. Coal Pit Lane is a 1:10 country lane. This lane currently prohibits the travel of HGV’s. The lane if it were to be used will require investment. Clifton Common is also problematic, firstly because of road safety issues and secondly traffic congestion.
The third possible access is via the proposed new road with an access point adjacent to the Holiday Inn. This will require some investment to make the access viable.
Access to the site and the management of traffic will be key factors in the development of this site. As can be seen from the artists impression above the Enterprise Zone butts onto the village. In effect people’s gardens will border onto the site. The management of air quality and noise will be an issue for the residents of the village.
Coal Pit lane is a 1:10 hill therefore access to the site via this road will be restricted. The site itself is steep and will represent a challenge for the developers. Where and how the development starts will be consideration to ensure that the developers ensure an acceptable duty of care for the residents of the village.
Ecology and the Environment
Noise pollution affects quality of life and has been linked to health problems. The EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) aims to manage noise and preserve quiet areas by engaging the public, local authorities and operators.
Environmental noise in the UK is controlled by numerous laws, guidelines and standards covering planning, transport, the environment and compensation. To provide a common approach to noise management, the European Union introduced the Environmental Noise Directive (END) in 2002. This was transposed into Environmental Noise Regulations in England and the devolved administrations in 2006.
The decibel scale and various noise indicators are used to quantify noise exposure levels. However, they are not intuitive and can result in difficulties when communicating noise levels. A sound’s unpleasantness depends upon its loudness, frequency content, duration, intermittence, predictability and source. Individuals find different sounds annoying, so no single measure can predict the reactions of everybody.
Decibel Scale and Noise Indicators
Meters measure sound pressure on the decibel (dB) scale. 0dB is the threshold of human hearing, 50dB is around the level of a normal conversation and 120-140dB is the threshold of pain. A 3dB increase is equal to a doubling in sound pressure but, if the sound is steady, will only just be noticed by a human. A 10dB increase equates to a doubling in the perceived loudness. Standards for environmental noise use the ‘A-weighted’ decibel scale [dB(A)] which mimics the sensitivity of the ear to different frequencies. The environmental noise indicators used vary between countries and industries and depending upon the type of sound that is being measured. They include:
• the maximum sound level reached in a period of time;
• the average sound level over a period of time. If noisy events are intermittent, the average value may not reflect the actual disruption caused by each event;
• indicators that are weighted to account for sound at disruptive times of the day such as evening or night.
The Effects of Environmental Noise
Environmental noise rarely reaches the sound pressure levels associated with hearing impairment. However, noise can cause annoyance, is commonly blamed for sleep disturbance and has been linked by researchers to less obvious effects, such as cardiovascular and mental health problems and reduced performance at work or school. The ways in which noise affects health are not clear.
Annoyance can cause stress and longer-term health problems such as hypertension (permanently raised blood pressure). On average, annoyance increases as the measured sound level increases but, individual attitudes to the same noise source can vary due to, for example:
· personal factors – including where people are and what they are doing at the time;
· context – in an urban area people might be more accepting of transport noise than in a rural area;
· choice – people who have paid more to live in a quiet area may be particularly sensitive to its disruption.
Evidence on the links between noise exposure and sleep quality is complex. The WHO recommends that sound levels should be kept below an average level of 30dB(A) in the bedroom, or a maximum of 45dB(A) for a single event. Higher sound levels have been related to reduced quality of sleep and awakenings. It appears that the majority of people will get used to common background noises at higher average sound levels and sleep will not be disturbed. However, the full restorative effects of sleep may be reduced even if people are not awakened.
Unusually loud noises cause elevated heart rates and blood pressure, which quickly return to normal once the noise stops. The effects of longer-term exposure are not well understood, but it has been linked to a slightly increased likelihood of hypertension, heart disease and heart attack. A recent study estimated that road noise could cause around 100 attacks a year in Greater London: 1.8% of the total incidence. Separating the effect of noise from other confounding factors, such as air pollution, body mass index, age and smoking is difficult.
Performance and Educational Achievement
Noise has been shown to affect the performance of adults and children in cognitive tasks. The EC sponsored RANCH study investigated the link between children’s health and noise in the UK, the Netherlands and Spain. It found that chronic exposure to aircraft noise can impair children’s reading comprehension and memory to some extent. No link was found between road noise and performance. It was suggested that aircraft noise may be more disruptive than road noise due to its “variability and unpredictability”. However, previous studies at higher noise exposure levels had found a link between road noise and performance.
Certain groups of people are more vulnerable to environmental noise. High background noise levels make conversation more difficult for the hearing impaired. Studies have linked a range of psychological symptoms to environmental noise, including anxiety, stress, irritability and mood change. There is no evidence that noise directly causes mental illness, but research suggests that people who are prone to certain psychiatric disorders may be more sensitive to environmental noise. The European Federation for Transport and Environment (T&E) believes that environmental noise unfairly affects poorer people. A study in Birmingham found that socially deprived populations experienced slightly higher exposure to night-time noise. Poorer people may be less able to afford houses in quieter areas. However, some people will choose to pay more to live in noisy areas for better access to amenities.
Noise needs to be considered when new developments may create additional noise and when new developments would be sensitive to the prevailing acoustic environment. When preparing local or neighbourhood plans, or making decisions about new development, there are opportunities to consider improvements to the acoustic environment.
Can noise override other planning concerns? It can, but neither the Noise policy statement for England nor the National Planning Policy Framework (which reflects the Noise policy statement) expects noise to be considered in isolation, separately from the economic, social and other environmental dimensions of a proposed development.
How to determine the noise impact? Local planning authorities’ plan-making and decision taking should take account of the acoustic environment and in doing so consider:
· whether or not a significant adverse effect is occurring or likely to occur;
· whether or not an adverse effect is occurring or likely to occur; and
· whether or not a good standard of amenity can be achieved.
Clearly, it is necessary for the Neighbour Plan to define its noise objective for the Enterprise Zone;
Noise Policy Vision
Promote good health and a good quality of life through the effective management of noise within the context of Government policy on sustainable development.
Noise Policy Aims
Through the effective management and control of environmental, neighbour and neighbourhood noise within the context of Government policy on sustainable development:
· avoid significant adverse impacts on health and quality of life;
· mitigate and minimise adverse impacts on health and quality of life; and
· where possible, contribute to the improvement of health and quality of life
Noise Management Objectives
1. Avoid significant adverse impacts on health and quality of life from environmental, neighbour and neighbourhood noise within the context of Government policy on sustainable development.
2. Mitigate and minimise adverse impacts on health and quality of life from environmental, neighbour and neighbourhood noise within the context of Government policy on sustainable development.
3. Where possible, contribute to the improvement of health and quality of life through the effective management and control of environmental, neighbour and neighbourhood noise within the context of Government policy on sustainable development.
Noise and Management Warning Notice
The warning notice must tell the recipient:
a. that the noise is coming from the premises between 11pm and 7am
b. that the noise exceeds, or may exceed permitted levels as measured from within the complainant’s dwelling
c. that the noise must be reduced to below the permitted level in a specified period (this must be at least 10 minutes after the notice is served and must end by 7am)
d. what time the notice is issued
Permitted noise levels -The permitted noise level using A-weighted decibels (the unit environmental noise is usually measured in) is:
a. 34 dBA (decibels adjusted) if the underlying level of noise is no more than 24 dBA
b. 10 dBA above the underlying level of noise if this is more than 24 dBA
In order to influence travel behaviour, it is imperative that the future needs of a community are considered and captured through good quality planning before infrastructure is put in place. To this end the Forum has carried out a traffic survey, which has helped inform this Neighbourhood Plan.
There will be an increase in traffic as a result of the Enterprise Zone, which will have an impact on the village of Clifton. This will occur in two ways, firstly environmentally and secondly by the fact of increase in traffic making it more difficult to travel.
Opportunities must therefore be taken within the planning process to make cycling, walking and public transport the modes of choice. However, the survey we carried out of residents have shown the following;
Only 25% of residents work locally, 44% however work outside Calderdale. The survey showed that the preferred method of travel was by car. 59% of respondents always use the car to travel to work. The traffic congestion along Clifton common at peak times is very acute, which is evidenced by the traffic survey.
The geography of the area does not help reduce traffic congestion. A better bus service would take away some of the issues. However, because only 25% of respondents work locally and 44% work outside Calderdale, it is unlikely public transport would help these people travel to work. There is a good train service, but the train station is two-mile from Clifton and people would still need to travel and this would presumably be in the main by car given the steepness of the climb from the train station to Clifton.
The layout of this development will have a significant impact on how people choose to travel. Good design is the key to maximising sustainable transport usage and reducing the need to travel. Roads should be primarily designed to accommodate the needs of pedestrians, cyclists and public transport to make sustainable modes of travel attractive, convenient and accessible. The geographical constraints will not help achieve this objective. Moreover, many of the jobs created as a result will come from outside the area. This will inevitably increase traffic congestion.
The development of a good road system is critical. Calderdale have a plan to develop the roads in and around the Enterprise Zone.
Design features for this development must encourage sustainable transport usage include:
· Comprehensive direct networks for walking, cycling and public transport, with routes for private motor traffic taking a lower priority. This may include providing additional routes for sustainable modes. Networks should serve all the key services and trip generators within and beyond the development. Providing sustainable modes with such a ‘permeable’ network can give them an advantage over private car users and so reduce the tendency for people to drive, especially for short journeys.
· Limited private vehicle access.
· Walking neighbourhoods are typically characterised as having a range of facilities within 10 minutes’ walking distance (around 800 metres). However, the propensity to walk or cycle is not only influenced by distance but also the quality of the experience; people may be willing to walk or cycle further where their surroundings are more attractive, safe and stimulating. Developers should consider the safety of the routes (adequacy of surveillance, sight lines and appropriate lighting) as well as landscaping factors (indigenous planting, habitat creation) in their design.
· Inclusive street environments that aim to integrate the activities of pedestrians, cyclists and motorists. This might include:
o home zones
o homes zones are residential areas whose streets are designed as places for people instead of just motor traffic. Their design should encourage drivers to travel at very low speeds;
o shared space streets and squares
o these are intended to reduce the dominance of motor vehicles and so improve conditions for cyclists and pedestrians.
· Car-free areas within a development. This may be combined with safe and secure parking provision separate from the residential area, perhaps on the development’s periphery.
· A ‘legible’ development design i.e. it should be easy for people to work out where they are and where they are going in order to navigate easily around the community.
· Joined-up transport networks, with good interchanges. NB: Cul-de-sacs are not generally recommended but they can be useful in keeping motor traffic levels low in a particular part of a development. Where appropriate, they should be linked to the rest of the network with pedestrian/cycle routes. These links should preferably be short, open and well overlooked, with active frontages.
· Pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users need to be and feel safe. It is important that developers design out crime and design in community safety at the earliest stages.
The development of our Neighbourhood plan must consider the approach laid out by Calderdale. However, there is general concerned by the village through our survey and consultation that traffic should be limited through the village. The Enterprise Zone potentially could result in an increase in heavy vehicles through the village.
Any proposal should include an HGV diversion banning HGV movements through Clifton Village from the Coal Pit lane turning off Clifton Common into New Street, and Towngate. The only access to the village that will be allowed for HGV’s will be those serving the residents e.g. delivery of goods, removals etc. HGVs should be directed instead onto the A644.
Village access will be allowed for non-residents only along Towngate and New Street. Coal Pit lane will be prohibited to all non-residents, this will prevent easy access from Junction 25 reducing the opportunity for the village to be used as a rat run.
The Enterprise Zone may result in the need for additional Parking. If this is the case this will probably occur along Coal Pit Lane. The policy will be to make this no parking road.
In May 2019 Calderdale issued its Air Quality Plan. In the introduction to this plan the following is stated;
This Air Quality Action Plan (AQAP) has been produced as part of our statutory duties required by the Local Air Quality Management framework. It outlines the action we will take to improve air quality in Calderdale between 2019 and 2030.
Our Neighbourhood Plan must adhere to this “Air Quality Plan”. This Air Quality Plan makes a number of specific recommendations
Air pollution is associated with a number of adverse health impacts. It is recognised as a contributing factor in the onset of heart disease and cancer. Additionally, air pollution particularly affects the most vulnerable in society: children and older people, and those with heart and lung conditions. There is also often a strong correlation with equalities issues, because areas with poor air quality are also often the less affluent areas1,2.
The annual health cost to society of the impacts of particulate matter alone in the UK is estimated to be around £16 billion3. Calderdale Council is committed to reducing the exposure of people in Calderdale to poor air quality in order to improve health.
We have developed actions that can be considered under the following broad topics:
· Alternatives to private vehicle use
· Promoting low emission transport
· Promoting travel alternatives including active travel
· Transport planning and infrastructure
· Traffic management
· Vehicle fleet efficiency
· Public information
· Policy guidance and development control
· Promoting low emission industrial and commercial activities
· Environmental permits
· Freight and delivery management
Our priorities are to improve the uptake of ultra-low emissions vehicles and active travel, including the promotion of public transport, walking and cycling, and lobby for the cleaning up of the public transport fleet. This will involve building public engagement into policy decisions that impact upon travel and showing leadership with bold decisions about planning, infrastructure and the transport network.
It is worth setting out the objectives set by WYLES.
In this AQAP we outline how we plan to effectively tackle air quality issues within our control. However, we recognise that there are a large number of air quality policy areas that are outside of our influence (such as vehicle emissions standards agreed in Europe), but for which we may have useful evidence, and so we will continue to work with regional and central government on policies and issues beyond Calderdale Council’s direct influence.
A Clean Air Zone will be introduced within the Leeds district, and elsewhere
were necessary, to control emissions from the most polluting vehicles.
Calderdale is considering the impact that the proposed CAZ in Leeds
may have on its area.
We will work with West Yorkshire bus operators to accelerate investment in newer buses, emission abatement technology and alternative fuels and technologies to reduce emissions through the implementation of the West
Yorkshire Bus Strategy and Bus 18 Project.
The bus fleet used in Calderdale is of mixed age (2000 registration buses on some routes, including routes through AQMAs) This objective is important
for reducing emissions.
We will accelerate the uptake of plug-in electric cars and vans through improved electric vehicle charging infrastructure and the implementation of an Electric Vehicle Strategy.
EV recharge points are now routinely required for new developments, and further implementation of on-street recharging is under investigation.
We will introduce the Eco Stars fleet recognition scheme to support
businesses, bus operators and public sector fleet managers to reduce
emissions from their fleet operations.
Eco Stars has been implemented in Calderdale and is being actively pursued.
We will work with our partners to develop infrastructure to support
alternative fuels and technology for transport including; natural gas, biomethane, LNG and hydrogen.
Not yet developed in Calderdale.
We will support the taxi industry to help the transition to low emission vehicles including demonstrating economic benefits; supporting funding bids and considering policy incentives to promote the uptake of
ultra-low emission taxis.
Licensed trade engagement has already begun. Further progress anticipated as electric recharging infrastructure
We will use the West Yorkshire Transport Strategy and Leeds City Region
Strategic Economic Plan to help deliver the WYLES objectives, including
improved cycling and walking provision; better public transport; low
emission energy production and use, and sustainable infrastructure to deliver “Good Growth”.
The themes of this objective are central to Calderdale’s air quality strategy.
We will use the West Yorkshire Air Quality and Planning Technical Guide to
deliver sustainable developments and deliver air quality improvements.
WYLES guidance used.
We will use our influence to promote low emission transport through the use
of the West Yorkshire Low Emission Procurement Guide in the procurement
of vehicles, goods and services and lead by example to reduce emissions from
our own fleet operations.
Low emission vehicle trials underway in house.
We will continue to raise awareness of the impact of poor air quality with the
public, policy makers and partners to improve air quality through changing behaviour, influencing policy, access funding and working together to deliver
the objectives of this low emissions strategy.
Improvements to practical public engagement are underway, including campaigns, web page improvements and progress with aim of making live monitoring data available.
Air Quality in Brighouse
Brighouse is an Air Quality Management Zone. The Enterprise Zone could potentially have a detrimental affect on air quality in the town. It is therefore vital that the Neighbourhood plan ensures the health and safety of the residents of Clifton.
Calderdale in their Air Quality Plan point out the following;
The Local Plan is a key component of local planning policy and as such is an appropriate tool for putting in place elements of the Council’s Action Plan. Integration of air quality considerations into the planning process, in line with the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) paragraph 124, allows a strategic approach to reducing emissions and promoting alternatives to private vehicle use. Calderdale Council formally adopted the West Yorkshire Low Emissions Strategy (WYLES) in December 2016 and is working towards implementing it through planning policy.
The same strategic imperative must be reflected in our Neighbourhood Plan. The following table shows the air quality issues facing Brighouse;
Regional background (%)
Local background (%)
All LDVs (%)
All HDVs (%)
Road increment NOx
Target road NOx
Reduction needed (NOx)
The required level of emissions reductions required, as presented in Section
The table above show a high degree of variability within each AQMA. This suggests the Local Authority need to carry out further assessments of traffic and emissions characteristics within each AQMA. Without a clear understanding of the nature of the pattern and source of exceedances within each AQMA, it may be difficult to prescribe measures to deliver the required levels of emissions reductions. Response: the variability, which is discussed in the report, is inevitable given the data available. The nature of the pattern and source of the exceedances can be identified in each case and the Council considers that the variability does not undermine the validity of its conclusions
Our Neighbourhood plan seeks to restrict the movement of traffic moving through the village, by not allowing access via Coal Pit Lane. The plan seeks to prevent traffic entering the Enterprise Zone via Clifton Common. This will reduce traffic congestion at the bottom of Clifton Common. The plan also seeks to only allow parking for residents living on Clifton Common, with no parking allowed on Coal Pit Lane.
The following map shows the Air Quality Management Zone in and around Brighouse;
Key to each map:
Boundary of AQMA
+ Location of discontinued monitoring location. Monitoring by passive diffusion tube.
+ Location of current monitoring location. Monitoring by passive diffusion tube.
AQ4 Monitoring location reference.
7728 Department for Transport traffic census point number.
Brighouse (Calderdale No 6 AQMA)
Brighouse traffic census points
In the Air Quality Plan the following is noted about the issues affecting Brighouse;
The A641 Bradford-Brighouse-Huddersfield, including the A644 between Brighouse – M62 Junction 25, corridor forms part of West Yorkshire’s Key Route Network (KRN) and was identified as a multi-modal corridor in the West Yorkshire Plus Transport
Fund’s (WY+TF) initial scheme pipeline with delivery by 2023.
The A641 project is located across Bradford, Calderdale and Kirklees districts and the A641 corridor has issues in all locations, including at key junctions – most significantly in Brighouse, which has an AQMA due to road traffic emissions.
Initial pre-feasibility work on the A641 project established that there is a complexity to the transport issues in Brighouse, and that significant opportunity exists to use A641 WY+TF investment to resolve these issues and to enable the realisation of Brighouse’s economic growth potential and Local Plan site development in Calderdale, Kirklees and Bradford. Thus, the vision for the A641 Project is:
“To improve efficiency and connectivity for all modes travelling along the corridor between Bradford, Brighouse and Huddersfield; enhancing accessibility to key growth sites, and facilitating economic development across Calderdale, Kirklees and Bradford.”
The A641 project will identify interventions across all travel modes for the A641 between Odsal Top in Bradford and Huddersfield Ring Road, and the A644 between Brighouse and M62 Junction 25. Potential phasing of interventions will be considered to establish if opportunities for early delivery exist; potential interventions deliverable via other projects will also be identified, such as reviewing Brighouse rail station parking.
Halifax is the most important employment destination for Brighouse residents beyond Brighouse itself. Brighouse – Halifax public transport movements and the A6025 corridor between Brighouse and Elland have been added to the scope of the project.
The A641 Project seeks to unlock development and facilitate employment growth. This goal is not incompatible with improvements to air quality, especially as improved traffic flows around the town centre ring and between the town and the M62 may lead to reduced emissions. The project aims to reduce congestion and improve journey time reliability on the A641/A644/A6025 for all travel modes to facilitate economic development, to unlock land for employment and housing growth and to increase the availability and use of sustainable transport modes. Aspects of the project include improved walking and cycling routes, improved public transport reliability and hence an incentive to shift from private vehicle use to sustainable modes of travel.
Our survey shows that only 36% of respondents work in Calderdale with 25% working in Brighouse. 20% of respondents are retired or not working. 44% Respondents work outside the Calderdale area. To reduce traffic from the village it will be necessary to improve public transport. This will also be essential if Calderdale are to achieve its air quality targets. The Enterprise Zone will generate in excess of 1000 jobs. There should therefore be an effective programme to encourage people working on the development to use public transport.